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Reducing Risk, Protecting People

Safety Terms Glossary

Accepted Engineering Practices
Accepted engineering practices stem from the selection and application of appropriate engineering, operating, and maintenance knowledge when designing, operating, and maintaining chemical facilities with the purpose of ensuring safety and preventing process safety incidents.
Adjusted Suspension Scaffold
An adjusted suspension scaffold is a suspension scaffold equipped with a hoist that can be operated by an employee on the scaffold. A single-point adjustable scaffold consists of a platform suspended by one rope from an overhead support and equipped with means to permit the movement of the platform to desired work levels.
Alternative Work
Alternative work is a new job with your former employer. If your doctor says you will not be able to return to your job at the time of injury, your employer is encouraged to offer you alternative work instead of supplemental job displacement benefits or vocational rehabilitation benefits. The alternative work must meet your work restrictions, last at least 12 months, pay at least 85 percent of the wages and benefits you were paid at the time you were injured, and be within a reasonable commuting distance of where you lived at the time of injury.
Approved means to be sanctioned, endorsed, accredited, certified, or accepted as satisfactory by a duly constituted and nationally recognized authority or agency.
Authorized Person
Authorized person is a person who is approved or assigned by the employer to perform a specific type of duty or duties or to be at a specific location or locations at the job site.
ANSI stands for American National Standards Institute. ANSI is a private non-profit organization that oversees the development of voluntary consensus standards for products, services, processes, systems, and personnel in the United States.
Accident Prevention
Accident prevention is a set of precautionary measures taken to avoid possible bodily harm.
An audit is an assessment of a safety and health program’s documentation and or a physical location to ensure regulation compliance by a trained safety professional.
Ampacity is the current in amperes a conductor can carry continuously under the conditions of use without exceeding its temperature rating.
Anchorage is a secure point of attachment for lifelines, lanyards, or deceleration devices.
Asbestos is a silicate mineral, a fibrous, naturally occurring material of varying chemical compositions. It is used in well over 3,000 products including building materials and goods.
Audiometric Testing
Audiometric testing is a means of detection by the person being tested of a series of pure tones. For each tone, the person indicates the lowest level of intensity that they are able to perceive.
Automatic means self-acting, operating by its own mechanism when actuated by some impersonal influence, like a change in current strength, pressure, temperature, or mechanical configuration.
Arc Flash Hazard
Arc flash hazard is danger due to arc thermal energy from an electric arc fault. This can be caused by accidental content, material failure, dust, corrosion, condensation, and many other events.
Bearer is a horizontal member of a scaffold upon which the platform rests and which may be supported by ledgers.
Bell-bottom Pier Hole
Bell-bottom pier hole is a type of shaft or footing excavation, the bottom of which is made larger than the cross-section above to form a belled shape.
Benching (Benching system)
Benching (benching system) is a method of protecting employees from cave-ins by excavating the sides of an excavation to form one or more horizontal steps, usually with vertical or near-vertical surfaces between levels.
Body Belt
Body belt is a strap with means both for securing it about the waist and for attaching it to a lanyard, lifeline, or deceleration device.
Body Harness
Body harness consists of straps that may be secured about the employee in a manner that will distribute the fall arrest forces over at least the thighs, pelvis, waist, chest, and shoulders, with means for attaching it to other components of a personal fall arrest system.
Bonding is the permanent joining of metallic parts to form an electrically conductive path which will assure electrical continuity and the capacity to conduct safely any current likely to be imposed.
Brace is a rigid connection that holds one scaffold member in a fixed position with respect to another member, or to a building or structure.
Buckle is any device for holding the body belt or body harness closed around the employee’s body.
Biohazard is a biological or chemical substance that poses a threat to the health of living organisms and the environment.
C.I.H. stands for Certified Industrial Hygienist.
Compliance means conforming to mandatory and voluntary regulations and standards; accident and injury histories; the courts; and custom and practice.
Corrective Actions
Corrective action is a change implemented to address a weakness identified in a management system. Normally corrective actions are instigated in response to a customer complaint.
Cave-in is the movement of soil or rock into an excavation, or the loss of soil from under a trench shield or support system, in amounts large enough to trap, bury, or injure and immobilize a person.
CE stands for the Conformite Europeenne marking which is a mandatory conformity marking for regulating the goods sold within the European Economic Area (EEA). It is a symbol meaning that the product it is affixed on fulfills European product directives and that it is fit for its purpose and will not endanger lives or property.
Chassis is a grounding symbol that indicates a connection to a metal frame in a metal case of a piece of equipment such as an amplifier.
Certified equipment means it has been tested and found by a nationally recognized testing laboratory to meet nationally recognized standards or to be safe for use in a specified manner; or is of a kind whose production is periodically inspected by a nationally recognized testing laboratory; and it bears a label, tag, or other record of certification.
Circuit Breaker
Circuit breaker (600 volts nominal, or less.) is a device designed to open and close a circuit by nonautomatic means and to open the circuit automatically on a predetermined overcurrent without injury to itself when properly applied within its rating. (Over 600 volts, nominal.) A switching device capable of making, carrying, and breaking currents under normal circuit conditions, and also making, carrying for a specified time, and breaking currents under specified abnormal circuit conditions, such as those of short circuit.
Cleat is a ladder crosspiece of rectangular cross-section placed on an edge upon which a person may step while ascending or descending a ladder.
Close Proximity
Close proximity means close enough to reach, fall into, or otherwise accidentally contact an electrical source. Working in close proximity would be within the electrical arc flash hazard boundary.
Combustible Dust (NEP)
Combustible dust (NEP) is a combustible particulate solid that presents a fire or deflagration hazard when suspended in air or some other oxidizing medium over a range of concentrations, regardless of particle size or shape.
Competent Person
A competent person is one who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings, or working conditions that are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and who has the authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them. There is no specific class, degree, or years of experience that can make someone a competent person. However, training can assist in the task. The company typically designates a job foreman, supervisor, or superintendent as a competent person. Upper management relies upon this individual to address hazards and train others on safety and health issues.
Conductor (a) Bare. A conductor that has no covering or electrical insulation whatsoever. (b) Covered. A conductor encased within material of composition or thickness that is not recognized as electrical insulation. (c) Insulated. A conductor encased within material of composition and thickness that is recognized as electrical insulation.
Confined Space
Confined space is a space defined by the concurrent existence of the following conditions: Existing ventilation is insufficient to remove dangerous air contamination and/or oxygen deficiency, which may exist or Ready access or egress for the removal of a suddenly disabled employee is difficult due to the location and/or size of the opening.
Connector is a device which is used to couple (connect) parts of the personal fall arrest system and positioning device systems together. It may be an independent component of the system, such as a carabineer, or it may be an integral component of part of the system (such as a buckle or D-ring sewn into a body belt or body harness, or a snap-hook spliced or sewn to a lanyard or self-retracting lanyard).
Coupler is a device for locking together the components of a tubular metal scaffold which shall be designed and used to safely support the maximum intended loads.
Corrosive is a substance or a mixture that by chemical action will materially damage or destroy metals or skin tissue.
Cumulative Injury (CT)
Cumulative injury (CT) is an injury that was caused by repeated events or repeated exposures at work. For example, hurting your wrist doing the same motion over and over or losing your hearing because of constant loud noise.
CASCO (CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT COMMITTEE) is the committee whose secretariat is provided by ISO/CS that deals with conformity assessment and is responsible for the development of conformity assessment standards.
Chair is the person with overall responsibility for a committee, who leads experts and delegates to consensus, makes sure everyone's views are heard, and remains neutral. They usually come from the sector concerned and act to promote ISO's work in that sector.
Committee (ISO)
A committee (ISO) could be a Technical Committee (TC), which develops standards in a certain sector or industry; a Subcommittee (SC), which addresses a specialized area within a TC; a Project Committee (PC), which is created to develop one standard, after which it is disbanded.
Conformity Assessment
Conformity assessment is the process of determining whether someone or something meets the requirements of a standard. It can be done in one of three ways: first party (assessment by manufacturer/supplier themself), second party (assessment of manufacturer/supplier by user or purchaser), third party (assessment of manufacturer/supplier by someone independent).
Dangerous Goods
Dangerous goods are also referred to as hazardous materials. Any solid, liquid, or gas that can harm people, other living organisms, property, or the environment.
D.O.T. stands for Department of Transportation – The United States’ federal department that institutes and coordinates national transportation programs, created in 1966.
Date of Injury
Date of injury is when you got hurt or ill. If your injury was caused by one event, the date it happened is the date of injury. If the injury or illness was caused by repeated exposures (a cumulative injury), the date of injury is the date you knew or should have known the injury was caused by work.
Deceleration Device
Deceleration device is any mechanism, such as a rope grab, rip-stitch lanyard, specially-woven lanyard, tearing or deforming lanyards, automatic self-retracting lifelines/lanyards, etc., which serves to dissipate a substantial amount of energy during a fall arrest, or otherwise limit the energy imposed on an employee during fall arrest.
Deceleration Distance
Deceleration distance is the additional vertical distance a falling employee travels, excluding lifeline elongation and free fall distance, before stopping, from the point at which the deceleration device begins to operate. It is measured as the distance between the location of an employee’s body belt or body harness attachment point at the moment of activation (at the onset of fall arrest forces) of the deceleration device during a fall, and the location of that attachment point after the employee comes to a full stop.
Decibels is the sound energy measured by a sound level meter using the “A” scale. The “A” scale is electronically weighted to simulate the response of the human ear to high and low frequency noise.
Defect is any characteristic or condition which tends to weaken or reduce the strength of the tool, object, or structure of which it is a part.
Disability is a physical or mental impairment that limits your life activities. A condition that makes engaging in physical, social and work activities difficult.
Disconnecting Means
Disconnecting means is a device, or group of devices, or other means by which the conductors of a circuit can be disconnected from their source of supply.
Double-Cleat Ladder
Double-cleat ladder is a ladder with a center rail to allow simultaneous two-way traffic for employees ascending or descending.
Dust consists of solid particles generated by handling, crushing, grinding, rapid impact, detonation, and decrepitation of organic or inorganic materials, such as rock, ore, metal, coal, wood, and grain.
Expert Witness
An expert witness is someone who has knowledge not normally possessed by the average person concerning the topic that he is to testify about. It is a witness who by virtue of education, training, skill, or experience, is believed to have knowledge in a particular subject beyond that of the average person.
Electrical Arc Flash Hazard Boundary
Electrical arc flash hazard boundary is the distance from an arc flash hazard source where arc thermal energy applied to the skin is equal to 1.2 calories/cm2 which is the onset of a second-degree burn to the skin. Additional PPE is required within this area for protection from arc thermal energy.
Employee is a person whose work activities are under the control of an individual or entity. The term employee includes contractors, undocumented workers, and minors.
Energy-isolating Device
Energy-isolating device is a mechanical device that physically prevents the transmission or release of energy, including but not limited to the following: A manually operated electrical circuit breaker; a disconnect switch; a manually operated switch by which the conductors of a circuit can be disconnected from all ungrounded supply conductors and, in addition, no pole can be operated independently; a line valve; a block; and any similar device used to block or isolate energy. Push buttons, selector switches and other control circuit type devices are not energy isolating devices.
Energy Source
Energy source is any source of electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, chemical, thermal, or other energy.
Equivalent means alternative designs, materials, or methods to protect against a hazard that the employer can demonstrate will provide an equal or greater degree of safety for employees than the methods, materials or designs specified in the standard.
Ergonomics is the study of how to improve the fit between the physical demands of the workplace and the employees who perform the work. That means considering the variability in human capabilities when selecting, designing or modifying equipment, tools, work tasks, and the work environment.
Excavation is any man-made cut, cavity, trench, or depression in an earth surface formed by earth removal.
Explosion-proof Apparatus
Explosion-proof apparatus is an apparatus enclosed in a case that is capable of withstanding an explosion of a specified gas or vapor which may occur within it and of preventing the ignition of a specified gas or vapor surrounding the enclosure by sparks, flashes, or explosion of the gas or vapor within. This also operates at such an external temperature that it will not ignite a surrounding flammable atmosphere.
European Committee for Standardization (CEN/CENELEC)
European Committee for Standardization (CEN/CENELEC) is the European standards organization, which publishes some standards in parallel with ISO. Standards with the designation EN are mandatory for CEN members.
Failure is load refusal, breakage, or separation of component parts. Load refusal is the point where the ultimate strength is exceeded.
Feeder is all circuit conductors between the service equipment, or the generator switchboard of an isolated plant, and the final branch-circuit overcurrent device.
Fitting is an accessory such as a locknut, bushing, or other part of a wiring system that is intended primarily to perform a mechanical rather than an electrical function.
Fixed Ladder
Fixed ladder is a ladder that cannot be readily moved or carried because it is an integral part of a building or structure.
Flame Resistant (FR)
Flame Resistant (FR) is material treated with a chemical flame retardant to prevent clothing ignition or natural materials that are inherently flame resistant.
Floor Opening
Floor opening is an opening measuring 12 inches or more in its least dimension, in any floor, platform, pavement, or yard through which persons may fall; such as a hatchway, stair or ladder opening, pit, or large manhole. Floor openings occupied by elevators, dumb waiters, conveyors, machinery, or containers are excluded from this subpart.
Forklift is any mechanical device used for the movement of supplies, material or finished product that is powered by an electric motor or an internal combustion engine. Forklifts are also referred to as powered industrial trucks.
Free Fall Distance
Free fall distance is the vertical displacement of the fall arrest attachment point on the employee’s body belt or body harness between onset of the fall and just before the system begins to apply force to arrest the fall. This distance excludes deceleration distance, and lifeline/lanyard elongation, but includes any deceleration device slide distance or self-retracting lifeline/lanyard extension before they operate and fall arrest forces occur.
Fuse is an overcurrent protective device with a circuit opening fusible part that is heated and severed by the passage of overcurrent through it. A fuse comprises all the parts that form a unit capable of performing the prescribed functions. It may or may not be the complete device necessary to connect it into an electrical circuit.
Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI)
Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI) is a device whose function is to interrupt the electric circuit to the load when a fault current to ground exceeds some predetermined value that is less than that required to operate the over current protective device of the supply circuit.
Grounded Conductor
Grounded conductor is a conductor used to connect equipment or the grounded circuit of a wiring system to a grounding electrode or electrodes.
Guardrail is a rail secured to uprights and erected along the exposed sides and ends of platforms.
General Assembly
General Assembly is a term used by ISO referring to its annual meeting of officers and representatives of member bodies. Items on the agenda might include the ISO annual report, strategic plan, and a financial status report.
Globally Harmonized System (GHS)
Globally Harmonized System (GHS) is a system of hazard communication developed by the United Nations for chemical hazards that can be adopted around the world. This includes safety data sheets, labels, and manuals.
Hazard is a potential source of harm or a chance of an accident or being injured; a possible source of danger to life, health, property, or environment.
Hazard Elimination
Hazard elimination means to remove a hazard, or the potential source of harm.
Hazard Recognition
Hazard recognition is the act of recognizing or condition of being recognized, a chance of being injured or harmed -acceptance or acknowledgement.
Hazmat is an abbreviation for hazardous material. Also referred to as dangerous goods. Any solid, liquid, or gas that can harm people, other living organisms, property, or the environment.
House Keeping Audit
House keeping audit is an assessment of a physical location to ensure regulation compliance by a trained safety professional.
Hazardous Substance
Hazardous substance is a substance which, by reason of being explosive, flammable, poisonous, corrosive, oxidizing, irritating, or otherwise harmful, is likely to cause death or injury.
Hearings are legal proceedings. In the context of workers’ compensation, this is when a judge discusses the issues in a case or receives information in order to make a decision about a dispute or a proposed settlement.
Heat Acclimatization
Heat acclimatization is a broad term that can be loosely defined as a complex series of changes or adaptations that occur in response to heat stress in a controlled environment over the course of seven to 14 days. These adaptations are beneficial to exercise in the heat and allow the body to better cope with heat stress.
Heat Illness
Heat illness is a serious medical condition resulting from the body’s inability to cope with a particular heat load. The body normally cools itself by sweating. During hot weather, especially with high humidity, sweating just isn’t enough; body temperatures can rise to dangerous levels and a heat illness can develop.
Heavy Duty Scaffold
Heavy duty scaffold is a scaffold designed and constructed to carry a working load not to exceed 75 pounds per square foot.
High Surface Energy (HSE)
High Surface Energy (HSE) refers to surface energy that effects bonding. A high surface energy means stronger molecular attraction. Higher energy surfaces such as metals, glass, polycarbonate, and rigid PVC are easier to bond with pressure sensitive adhesives.
Industrial Hygiene
Industrial hygiene is also known as occupational hygiene, is the art and science of protecting against hazards at work that may result in injury, illness or affect the well-being of workers. It often involves the assessment and control of chemical, physical, biological, ergonomic and psychosocial hazards in the workplace that could cause disease or discomfort.
Informal Hearing
Informal hearing is an unofficial or informal session such as those conducted by an investigatory committee or a grand jury. In the context of OSHA, this refers to hearings where the intent is to provide an opportunity for participation and comment by interested parties that can be carried out expeditiously and without rigid procedures which might impede the determination process.
Inspection is an official examination or review, or formal evaluation exercise. In the context of OSHA, an inspection involves health and safety compliance officers visiting a workplace. These officers specialize in reducing hazards and preventing illnesses, injuries and deaths in the workplace.
Injury and Illness Prevention Program
Injury and Illness Prevention Program is a health and safety program employers are required to develop and implement. The aim is to create a proactive process to help employers find and fix workplace hazards before workers are hurt. This program is enforced by Cal/OSHA.
Insulated is a conductor encased within a material of composition and thickness that is recognized as electrical insulation.
Isolated Power System
Isolated power system is a system comprising an isolating transformer or its equivalent, a line isolation monitor, and its ungrounded circuit conductors.
ISO stands for International Organization for Standardization. This is a group composed of representatives from the various national standards organizations of member countries. They are responsible for developing international standards for technology, scientific testing, societal issues, working conditions, and safety measures.
ISO Central Secretariat (ISO/CS)
ISO Central Secretariat (ISO/CS) is the ISO headquarters in Geneva where everything from IT helpdesk and editing to TPMs and membership are based.
International Classification for Standards (ICS)
International Classification for Standards (ICS) is the structure for cataloging standards and classifying them in libraries and databases. It is organized according to sectors of the economy, technologies, activities, and fields of science and can be updated when necessary.
International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)
International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the standards body that publishes international standards for electrical, electronic, and related technologies.
Job Safety Analysis
Job safety analysis is a procedure that helps integrate accepted safety and health principles and practices into a particular task or job function. This is often known as JSA, and is a common term used in construction or job site environments by field personnel or project managers.
Job Hazard Analysis
Job hazard analysis is a process that identifies hazards associated with the performance of various job tasks with the goal to make each worker as safe as possible. Generally, it is a multi-step process that includes employee screening, data analysis, task identification, potential risk assessments, and the development of preventative measures.
Job-Made Ladder
Job-made ladder is a ladder that is fabricated by employees, typically at the construction site. It is non-commercially manufactured.
Kayser Hardness Test
The Kayser hardness test is a method used by engineers for determining the true hardness of metals at high temperatures.
Kelvin Scale
The kelvin scale uses kelvin(K) as an absolute SI unit for the thermodynamic temperature scale that uses absolute zero as its null point. This type of unit is primarily used by scientists and engineers who need calculations without negative numbers, generally when working with extremely cold systems and communicating with different languages.
Keep Out
Keep out labels and signs as they relate to electricity represent a clearance area around instrumentation and controls and other components that should not be populated because it would interfere with mounting parts, trouble-shooting, airflow, and so on. A buffer zone around the perimeter of a printed circuit board to keep components from being mounted near the edge of a board, or traces from running near the edge.
Litigation is the process of bringing or contesting a lawsuit.
Loss Control
Loss control is risk management techniques where the goal is to reduce the possibility that a loss will occur and reduce the severity of those that do occur. These are proactive measures taken to prevent or reduce loss evolving from accident, injury, illness and property damage.
Lanyard is a flexible line of rope, wire rope, or strap which generally has a connector at each end for connecting the body belt or body harness to a deceleration device, lifeline, or anchorage.
Leading-edge is the edge of a floor, roof, or formwork for a floor or other walking/working surface (such as the deck) which changes location as additional floor, roof, decking, or formwork sections are placed, formed, or constructed. A leading-edge is considered to be an unprotected side and edge during periods when it is not actively and continuously under construction.
Liaison (ISO)
Liaison (ISO) is an agreement which might be between two ISO committees, an ISO committee, and a corresponding IEC committee or an ISO committee and an external organization where they share expertise and relevant documents. There are different categories of external liaisons with varying eligibility criteria.
Lifeline is a component consisting of a flexible line for connection to an anchorage at one end to hang vertically (vertical lifeline), or for connection to anchorages at both ends to stretch horizontally (horizontal lifeline), and which serves as a means for connecting other components of a personal fall arrest system to the anchorage.
Light Duty Scaffold
Light duty scaffold is a scaffold designed and constructed to carry a working load not to exceed 25 pounds per square foot.
Lighting Outlet
Lighting outlet is an outlet intended for the direct connection of a lamp holder, a lighting fixture, or a pendant cord terminating in a lamp holder.
Live Line Tools
Live line tools are electrically rated for the voltage involved and used to touch or come in close proximity to exposed, energized conductors or equipment.
Load Refusal
Load refusal is the point where the structural members lose their ability to carry the load.
Lockout refers to the placement of a lockout device on an energy-isolating device, in accordance with an established procedure, ensuring that the energy-isolating device and the equipment being controlled cannot be operated until the lockout device is removed.
Lockout Device
Lockout device is any device that uses positive means, such as a lock, blank flanges, and bolted slip blinds, to hold an energy-isolating device in a safe position, thereby preventing the energizing of machinery or equipment.
Low Surface Energy (LSE)
Low Surface Energy (LSE) refers to surface energy that effects bonding. A low surface energy means weaker attractive forces. Plastic materials such as vinyl, polyethylene and polystyrene have unique surface characteristics making them harder for pressure sensitive adhesives to stick.
Lower Levels
Lower levels are areas or surfaces to which an employee can fall. Such areas or surfaces include but are not limited to, ground levels, floors, platforms, ramps, runways, excavations, pits, tanks, material, water, equipment, or structures.
Maximum Intended Load
Maximum intended load is the total of all loads including the working load, the weight of the scaffold, and such other loads as may be reasonably anticipated.
Medium-Duty Scaffold
Medium-duty scaffold is a scaffold designed and constructed to carry a working load not to exceed 50 pounds per square foot.
Mid-rail is a rail approximately midway between the guardrail and platform, used when required, and secured to the uprights erected along the exposed sides and ends of platforms.
Mitigation is to moderate (a quality or condition) in force or intensity, alleviate, to become milder. In relation to risk, or risk management, this means the identification, evaluation, and prioritization of risks followed by the coordinated application of resources to minimize, monitor, and control the probability or impact of threats or to maximize the realization of opportunities.
Mock Audits
Mock audits is the method for assessing the quality of a company’s existing safety compliance efforts. Following each mock audit, an in-depth written report is prepared and submitted to the client in a timely manner. This is performed to identify and correct potential safety compliance issues.
Normal Production Operations
Normal production operations is the utilization of a machine or equipment to perform its intended production function.
National Standards Body (ISO)
National standards body (ISO) is the national equivalent of ISO which represents ISO in their country. Examples include BSI in the United Kingdom, NEN in the Netherlands, and SABS in South Africa.
Non-Flammable Gas
Non-flammable gas is a non-flammable, non-poisonous compressed gas refers to any material (or mixture) which exerts in the packaging an absolute pressure of 280 kPa (40.6 psia)or greater at 68°F (20°C), and does not meet the definition of a flammable gas. This can include compressed, liquefied, cryogenic, compressed gasses in solution, asphyxiant, and oxidizing gases. Examples are carbon dioxide, compressed helium, nitrogen, and helium.
Overcurrent is any current in excess of the rated current of equipment or the ampacity of a conductor. It may result from overload, short circuit, or ground fault. A current in excess of rating may be accommodated by certain equipment and conductors for a given set of conditions. This means that the rules for overcurrent protection are specific for particular situations.
Overload is the operation of equipment in excess of normal, full-load rating, or of a conductor in excess of rated ampacity which, when it persists for a sufficient length of time, would cause damage or dangerous overheating. A fault, such as a short circuit or ground fault, is not an overload.
On-site Audits
On-site audits means to examine, verify, or correct the safety practices and records on the work site utilizing OSHA standards specific to that site.
OSHA stands for Occupational Safety and Health Administration, a United States government agency in the Department of Labor that maintains a safe and healthy work environment.
Policy Development
Policy development is the development of procedures that often involves identifying needs, gathering information, drafting, consulting and review. In the context of workplace safety, it is an iterative process that is designed to produce continuous improvement in workplace safety. It also provides a clear indication of the policymaker's commitment to safety.
Powered Industrial Trucks
Powered industrial trucks are commonly called forklifts, or lift trucks, these are used in many industries. primarily to move materials.
Panelboard is a single panel or group of panel units designed for assembly in the form of a single panel. This includes buses, automatic overcurrent devices, and with or without switches for the control of light, heat, or power circuits.
Personal Fall Arrest System
Personal fall arrest system is a system used to arrest an employee in a fall from a working level. It consists of an anchorage, connectors, a body belt, or body harness and may include a lanyard, deceleration device, lifeline, or suitable combinations of these.
Personal Protective Equipment
Personal protective equipment is commonly referred to as PPE, this is wearable clothing that can be used to protect a worker’s body, head, eyes, ears, lungs, hands, and feet. When engineering, work practices, and administrative controls are not feasible and do not provide sufficient enough protection, it then becomes the responsibility of the employer to provide PPE and usage instructions.
Platform is a working space for persons, elevated above the surrounding floor or ground. Examples include a balcony for the operation of machinery and equipment.
Pinch Point
Pinch Point is a type of entanglement injury that is any point other than the point of operation at which it is possible for a part of the body to be caught between the moving parts, between moving and stationary parts, or between the material and moving part or parts of a press or auxiliary equipment.
Point of Access
Point of access refers to all areas used by employees for work-related passage from one area or level to another.
Positioning Device System
Positioning device system is a body belt or body harness system rigged to allow an employee to be supported on an elevated vertical surface, such as a wall, and work with both hands free while leaning.
Power Outlet
Power outlet is an enclosed assembly that may include receptacles, circuit breakers, fuse holders, fused switches, and watt-hour meter mounting means; intended to serve as a means for distributing power required to operate mobile or temporarily installed equipment.
Premises Wiring
Premises wiring is interior and exterior wiring, including power, lighting, control, and signal circuit wiring together with all of its associated hardware, fittings, and wiring devices, both permanently and temporarily installed, which extends from the load end of the service drop, or load end of the service lateral conductors to the outlet. This does not include wiring internal to appliances, fixtures, motors, controllers, motor control centers, and similar equipment.
Preventative Recovery Period
Preventative recovery period is a period of time to recover from the heat in order to prevent heat illness.
Protective System
Protective system is a method of protecting employees from cave-ins, from material that could fall or roll from an excavation face into an excavation, or from the collapse of adjacent structures. Protective systems include support systems, sloping and benching systems, shield systems, and other systems that provide the necessary protection.
Plenary in the context of ISO, is an annual meeting (often the only physical meeting) where an ISO committee discusses its projects and other matters such as. membership, its Strategic Business Plan, or barriers to its work.
Project Leader
Project leader in the context of ISO, is an expert nominated by a committee to lead a particular project, such as to prepare (or delegate) a standards draft, lead discussions and ensure that it progresses.
Project Stage
Project stage in the context of ISO, is the stage of a project’s development, corresponding to an associated document: Preliminary stage = Preliminary work item (PWI), Proposal stage = New work item proposal (NP), Preparatory stage = Approved work item (AWI) until there is a Working draft (WD), Committee stage = Committee draft (CD), Enquiry stage = Enquiry draft (ISO/DIS), Approval stage = Final Draft International Standard (ISO/FDIS), Publication stage = International Standard (ISO)
Qualified Person
Qualified person is a person who, by possession of a recognized degree, certificate, or professional standing, or who by extensive knowledge, training, and experience, has successfully demonstrated his ability to solve or resolve problems relating to the subject matter, the work, or the project.
Registered Professional Engineer
Registered professional engineer is a person who is registered as a professional engineer in the state where work is to be performed. Becoming an engineer or professional engineer is a process that varies widely around the world and by region.
Regulatory Compliance
Regulatory compliance often refers to an organization’s objective to ensure that they are aware of and take steps to comply with relevant laws, policies, and regulations.
Risk Assessment
Risk assessment is a process to identify potential hazards and analyze the possible outcomes if a hazard were to occur. A risk assessment is best carried out before the design process even starts to be able to plan accordingly, although risk assessments can and should be done at any point in a product’s lifecycle. There are several different types of risk assessments which vary in the way that they are conducted for the piece of machinery or workplace setting.
Risk Assessment (Qualitative)
Risk assessment (qualitative) is a risk assessment conducted by an assessor using their experience and personal judgment to identify and assess hazards as well as planning the control methods.
Risk Assessment (Quantitative)
Risk assessment (quantitative) is a type of risk assessment that is carried out using a risk matrix to assign a level of probability to each identified area. Commonly, risk is equivalent to the severity multiplied by the likelihood.
Risk Assessment (Dynamic)
Risk assessment (dynamic) is a type of risk assessment that is carried out on the spot, typically during unforeseen circumstances. This happens when there are significant changes to the health and safety of the workplace or activities.
Raceway is a channel designed expressly for holding wires, cables, or busbars, with additional functions as permitted in this subpart. Raceways may be of metal or insulating material, and the term includes rigid metal conduit, rigid nonmetallic conduit, intermediate metal conduit, liquidtight flexible metal conduit, flexible metallic tubing, flexible metal conduit, electrical metallic tubing, underfloor raceways, cellular concrete floor raceways, cellular metal floor raceways, surface raceways, wireways, and busways.
Receptacle is a receptacle is a contact device installed at the outlet for the connection of a single attachment plug. A single receptacle is a single contact device with no other contact device on the same yoke. A multiple receptacle is a single device containing two or more receptacles.
Remote-control Circuit
Remote-control circuit is any electric circuit that controls any other circuit through a relay or an equivalent device.
Rope Grab
Rope grab is a deceleration device that travels on a lifeline and automatically, by friction, engages the lifeline and locks so as to arrest the fall of an employee. A rope grab usually employs the principle of inertial locking, cam/level locking, or both.
Runway is a passageway for persons, elevated above the surrounding floor or ground level, such as a footwalk along shafting or a walkway between buildings.
Regional Standards
Regional standards is when national standards bodies group together to make regional standards. As an example, national standards bodies in Europe are also members of the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) as well as members of ISO. Together with its sister organizations, CENELEC and ETSI, CEN has a special role to develop European Standards that can support European Union laws (known as ‘directives‘) or broader European public policies. Other regional standards groups include Latin America (COPANT) and the Asia-Pacific region (PASC).
Safety Coordinator
Safety coordinator is someone that is responsible for planning, implementing and overseeing a company’s employee safety at work, ensuring equality in importance, rank, or degree in the condition of being safe and free from danger, risk, or injury.
Safety Factor
Safety factor is the ratio of the ultimate breaking strength of a member or piece of material or equipment to the actual working stress or safe load when in use.
Safety Engineer
Safety engineer is someone that is responsible for preventing accidents and reducing risk in the workplace or related to industrial machinery.
Safety Manager
Safety manager is someone that is responsible for safety and health, accident prevention, investigation training and regulatory compliance in the workplace.
Sealable Equipment
Sealable equipment is equipment enclosed in a case or cabinet that is provided with a means of sealing or locking so that live parts cannot be made accessible without opening the enclosure. The equipment may or may not be operable without opening the enclosure.
Safety Strategy
Safety strategy is a big picture plan designed to help workers or workplaces achieve safety goals.
Scaffold is any temporary elevated platform and its supporting structure used for supporting workers or materials or both.
Safety Violations
Safety violations are acts which jeopardize the safety of persons or property at the facility. According to OSHA, alleged violation observed during an inspection will be classified as either “serious,” “general,” or “regulatory.” Depending on the circumstances, any of these violations may carry the additional designation of “repeat” or “willful.”
Sectional Ladder
Sectional ladder is a non-self-supporting portable ladder, non-adjustable in length, consisting of two or more sections of the ladder. It is constructed so that the sections may be combined to function as a single ladder. Its size is designated by the overall length of the assembled sections.
Self-retracting Lifeline/lanyard
Self-retracting lifeline/lanyard is a deceleration device containing a drum-wound line that can be slowly extracted from, or retracted onto, the drum under slight tension during normal employee movement. After the onset of a fall, it automatically locks the drum and arrests the fall.
Separately Derived System
Separately derived system is a premises wiring system whose power is derived from a generator, transformer, or converter windings and has no direct electrical connection, including a solidly connected grounded circuit conductor, to supply conductors originating in another system.
Service Equipment
Service equipment is the necessary equipment, usually consisting of a circuit breaker or switch and fuses, and their accessories, located near the point of entrance of supply conductors to a building or other structure, or an otherwise defined area, and intended to constitute the main control and means of the cutoff of the supply.
Servicing refers to workplace activities such as constructing, installing, setting up, adjusting, inspecting, modifying, maintaining and/or servicing machines or equipment, including lubrication, cleaning or unjamming of machines or equipment, and making adjustments or tool changes, where employees could be exposed to the unexpected energization or startup of the equipment or release of hazardous energy.
Shade is a blockage of direct sunlight. Canopies, umbrellas, and other temporary structures or devices may be used to provide shade. One indicator that blockage is sufficient is when objects do not cast a shadow in the area of blocked sunlight. Shade is not adequate when the heat in the area of shade defeats the purpose of shade, which is to allow the body to cool.
Sheeting consists of the members of a shoring system that retain the earth in position and in turn are supported by other members of the shoring system.
Shield is a structure used in excavation to withstand cave-ins and which will protect employees working within the shield system. Shields can be permanent structures or portable units moved along as work progresses. Shields used in trenches are usually referred to as trench boxes or trench shields.
Side-Rolling Ladder
Side-rolling ladder is a semi-fixed ladder, non-adjustable in length, supported by attachments to a guide rail, which is generally fastened to shelving, the plane of the ladder being also its plane of motion.
Side-Step Fixed Ladder
Side-step fixed ladder is a fixed ladder that requires a person to get off at the top to step to the side of the ladder side rails to reach the landing.
Signaling Circuit
Signaling circuit is any electric circuit that energizes signaling equipment.
Silo is a structure for storing bulk materials. Silos are most commonly used for bulk storage of grain, coal, cement, carbon black, woodchips, food products, and sawdust. Three types of silos are in widespread use today: tower silos, bunker silos, and bag silos.
Single-Cleat Ladder
Single-cleat ladder is a ladder consisting of a pair of side rails connected together by cleats, rungs, or steps.
Sloping refers to sloping the sides of the excavation away from the excavation to protect employees from cave-ins. The required slope will vary with soil type, weather, and surface or near-surface loads that may affect the soil in the area of the trench (such as adjacent buildings, vehicles near the edge of the trench, and so forth).
Slow Response
Slow response is the setting on the sound level meter that averages out impulses of brief duration that may cause wide fluctuation in the sound level meter reading.
Special-purpose Ladder
Special-purpose ladder is a portable ladder that represents either a modification or a combination of design or construction features in one of the general-purpose types of ladders previously defined, in order to adapt the ladder to special or specific uses.
Standard Railing
Standard railing is a vertical barrier erected along exposed edges of a floor opening, wall opening, ramp, platform, or runway to prevent falls of persons.
Standard Threshold Shift
Standard threshold shift is a change in hearing threshold relative to the baseline audiogram of an average of 10 dB (corrected for age) at 2000, 3000, and 4000 Hz in either ear.
Stepladder is a self-supporting portable ladder, non-adjustable in length, having flat steps and a hinged back. Its size is designated by the overall length of the ladder measured along the front edge of the side rails.
Strain Relief
Strain relief is a mechanical device that prevents force from being transmitted to the connections or terminals of a cable or extension cord.
Structural Ramp
Structural ramp is a ramp built of steel or wood, usually used for vehicle access. Ramps made of soil or rock are not considered structural ramps.
Support System
Support system is a structure such as underpinning, bracing, or shoring, which provides support to an adjacent structure, underground installation, or the sides of an excavation.
(Switch) General-use Switch
(Switch) General-use switch is a switch intended for use in general distribution and branch circuits. It is rated in amperes, and it is capable of interrupting its rated current at its rated voltage.
(Switch) General-use Snap Switch
(Switch) General-use snap switch is a form of general-use switch so constructed that it can be installed in flush device boxes or on outlet box covers, or otherwise used in conjunction with wiring systems recognized by this subpart.
(Switch) Isolating Switch
(Switch) Isolating switch is a switch intended for isolating an electric circuit from the source of power. It has no interrupting rating, and it is intended to be operated only after the circuit has been opened by some other means.
(Switch) Motor-circuit switch
(Switch) Motor-circuit switch is a switch, rated in horsepower, capable of interrupting the maximum operating overload current of a motor of the same horsepower rating as the switch at the rated voltage.
Switching Devices - (Over 600 volts, nominal.)
Switching devices are devices designed to close and/or open one or more electric circuits. Included in this category are circuit breakers, cutouts, disconnecting (or isolating) switches, disconnecting means, and interrupter switches.
Standards Development Organization (SDO)
Standards Development Organization (SDO) is any organization whose main purpose is developing, coordinating or issuing mandatory or voluntary technical standards.
Tabulated Data
Tabulated data are tables and charts approved by a registered professional engineer and used to design and construct a protective system.
Tagout Device
Tagout device is any prominent warning device, such as a tag and a means of attachment, that can be securely fastened to an energy-isolating device to indicate that the machine or equipment to which it is attached may not be operated until the tagout device is removed.
Temporary Service Stairway
Temporary service stairway is a stairway where permanent treads and/or landings are to be filled in at a later date.
Tabulated Data
Tabulated data are tables and charts approved by a registered professional engineer and used to design and construct a protective system.
Through Fixed Ladder
Through fixed ladder is a fixed ladder that requires a person to get off at the top to step between the side rails of the ladder to reach the landing.
Toeboard is a barrier secured along the sides and ends of a platform, to guard against the falling of material.
Transportable X-ray
Transportable x-ray is x-ray equipment installed in a vehicle or that may readily be disassembled for transport in a vehicle.
Trench is a narrow excavation (in relation to its length) made below the surface of the ground.
Trestle Ladder
Trestle ladder is a self-supporting portable ladder, non-adjustable in length, consisting of two sections hinged at the top to form equal angles with the base. The size is designated by the length of the side rails measured along the front edge.
Trolley Ladder
Trolley ladder is a semi-fixed ladder, non-adjustable in length, supported by attachments to an overhead track, the plane of the ladder being at right angles to the plane of motion.
Unprotected Sides and Edges
Unprotected sides and edges are any sides or edges of a walking/working surface (such as floor, roof, ramp, or runway) where there is no wall or guardrail system at least 39 inches (1.0 m) high.
UKCA is the UK conformity assessed marking which is being used to indicate certification for goods placed on the market in Great Britain.
UKNI is the UK Northern Ireland conformity assessed marking for products that have undergone a third-party assessment.
Uprights are the vertical members of a trench shoring system are placed in contact with the earth and are usually positioned so that individual members do not contact each other. Uprights are placed so that individual members are closely spaced, in contact with, or interconnected to each other, are often called sheeting.
Unsafe Acts
Unsafe acts are actions that will lead to potential injury, loss of time, or property damage.
Ventilated means to permit circulation of air sufficient to remove an excess of heat, fumes, or vapors.
Voltage to Ground
Voltage to ground means for grounded circuits, the voltage between the given conductor and that point or conductor of the circuit that is grounded; for ungrounded circuits, the greatest voltage between the given conductor and any other conductor of the circuit.
Workers’ Compensation
Workers’ compensation provides insurance to cover medical care and compensation for employees who are injured in the course of employment, in exchange for mandatory relinquishment of the employee’s right to sue their employer for negligence.
Walking/working Surface
Walking/working surface is any surface, whether horizontal or vertical on which an employee walks or works, including, but not limited to, floors, roofs, ramps, bridges, runways, formwork, and concrete reinforcing steel but not including ladders, vehicles, or trailers, on which employees must be located in order to perform their job duties.
Wall Hole
Wall hole is an opening less than 30 inches but more than 1 inch high, of unrestricted width, in any wall or partition. This includes ventilation holes or drainage scuppers.
Wall Opening
Wall opening is an opening at least 30 inches high and 18 inches wide, in any wall or partition, through which persons may fall. This includes yard-arm doorways or chute openings.
Watertight is constructed so that moisture will not enter the enclosure.
Weatherproof is constructed or protected so that exposure to the weather will not interfere with successful operation. Rainproof, raintight, or watertight equipment can fulfill the requirements for weatherproof where varying weather conditions (other than wetness, such as snow, ice, dust, or temperature extremes) are not a factor.
Welding/Hot Work Procedures
Welding/hot work procedures are activities which result in sparks, fire, molten slag, or hot material which has the potential to cause fires or explosions.
Work Area
Work area is the portion of a walking/working surface where job duties are being performed.
Working Load
Working load is the load imposed by men, materials, and equipment.
Workplace Violence
Workplace violence is any act or threat of physical violence, harassment, intimidation, or other threatening disruptive behavior that occurs at the worksite. It ranges from threats and verbal abuse to physical assaults and even homicide. It can affect and involve employees, clients, customers, and visitors.
World Standards Cooperation (WSC)
World Standards Cooperation (WSC) stands for the Union of standardization organizations, consisting of ISO, IEC and ITU (International Telecommunications Union).

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